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Everybody knows it’s necessary to warm up first before you start any kind of sport exercises – jogging, basketball, cambered bar etc., so that your muscles should be warm. Usually, it’s necessary to do some aerobic exercises during 5-15 minutes (time depends on your level). Warm-up should prepare for work the muscles you will use during the training. For example, before jogging you can warm up your legs jogging in place and swinging them; and it goes without saying you should warm up carefully before rhythmic gymnastics class. Just remember, that warm-up is an important element in training preparation.
The longer and more actively you’re going to train, the longer your warm up should be. New comers should do a longer warm up as their organism doesn’t have enough resources for active work. So, if you just start training, then any exercise will be hard for you; but if you’ve been training for a long time, then your body will “remember” what to do and how to do it, and your preparation for training can be much quicker.
What does the warm-up really give? Firstly, your body warms in the truest sense of the word. The temperature rises in the muscles and tissues, which connect muscles with the bones and bones with each other. Warm muscles and joints become more flexible and the risk of their damage falls. Secondly, warm-up helps to redistribute the blood in the organism: blood flows out from the intestinal canal and lien to the skeletal muscles. Blood brings nourishments and oxygen come to the muscles, it rises the physical endurance. In other words, if you don’t warm up before the training, you’ll get tired rather quickly. Finally, warm-up is also necessary in order to carry the cardiac rhythm to the target zone. Load on your heart will be too heavy without the warm-up.
Stretching succeeds the warm-up. These are the exercises, which help to keep the body flexible. Sinews and joints change with the increase of years. Sinews shorten and lose their elasticity, this hinders the movements. Stretching of large shinbone muscles and calves will remarkably improve your mobility.
Mobility is necessary for the upright posture. Stiff neck leads to the stoop, undeveloped chest and shoulder muscles result in sunken breast. Poor mobility of spine, loin and hips joints and muscles make you roll down even more. Regular stretching helps to make your posture upright and escape back and loin pain.
Moreover, stretching repair the imbalance in development of various muscles. Many people have more developed the front thigh muscles, than the back ones. While moving, a person subconsciously chooses the walk, in which the front thigh muscles are loaded much. This imbalance in moving leads to muscle sprain, and muscle sprain leads to heaviness of movement, and this, in its turn, can lead to injuries.
These are some rules for stretching before the training:
1. Always do warm-up before the stretching
2. Repeat the stretching after exercises
3. Work with all the muscles and joints during the stretching, not only with those, which you’ll use in exercises; pay attention to the loin, muscles of back, chest, shoulders, muscle groups of front and back thighs, thigh joints and buttocks, work on calves, neck joints, arms and wrists;
4. Stretch every muscle group during 15 seconds; in length of time fix the results and increase the stretching time till 1 minute for 1 muscle group
5. Don’t make abrupt movements; stretching should be smooth in motion in order not to damage the muscles, joints and ligaments; while stretching you should feel your muscles, but not feel pain in them
6. Remember about breathing. Breathe calmly with all of your chest, breathing in with the nose and breathing out with the mouth. Let your thoughts flow like your movements. Stretching is a good time to think about the goals you want to reach during today training. Sometimes it’s useful to do stretching at the end of the training after the revival; stretching helps to relax the muscles and come back to the normal rhythm of life.
You should decrease the load gradually even if you haven’t felt the load during the training. Spend 5-10 minutes or more for cooling off if you worked hard.
Cooling off is the opposite process of the warm-up. During the training your heart moved the blood along the vessels nourishing the muscles. That’s why you should recover the normal blood distribution in the organism. If you stop training suddenly, then the blood flows to the internals and the head, as a result you may feel head ache, nausea or dizziness. But you don’t want it, do you?
So, finish your exercises step by step, recover your breath, normalize your blood pressure and pulse; you can even hang on the bar and stretch your spine a little bit. After you feel you come back to your normal rhythm, take a contrast shower, all your fatigue will vanished as if by magic. If your load was very hard and you need to relax the muscles, take a hot bath and you’ll feel great at the next training!
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